Depending on the offence, soldiers are brought before either a Judge Court Martial or Panel Court Martial.
The former, presided over by a district judge from the State Courts, deals with civil offences such as theft and drug consumption.
In the latter, the judge is joined by two senior military officers on a panel which deals with "purely military offences", including Awol and desertion, said [attorney Amolat] Singh.
Like the civilian courts, soldiers who are unhappy with their conviction or sentence can appeal to the Military Court of Appeal - the highest authority.
They can also petition the Reviewing Authority of the Armed Forces Council, which consists of the Chief of Defence Force, a Service Chief, and the Ministry of Defence's permanent secretary for defence development. The Reviewing Authority can quash a court-martial sentence or reduce it.